patmos

 Patmos is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea is subject, according to the ancient Greeks, the Southern Sporades, in particular modern political division of the country in the Dodecanese.

Geographical position:Located not, between 37 ° 20 'B latitude and 26 ° 35' A. longitude, south of Samos, TO. Ikaria and west. Leros, spaced approximately 25 miles from Turkey (Asia Minor), (Cape Elder or Poseidio).


Morphology:Patmos is a small island, a maximum length of 10 miles and a maximum width of six miles and a total coastline of 18 miles. Its area reaches about 34 142 sq. Km, with rocky and barren land. Similar in configuration and aktografia Ithaca, with the only difference that is threefold area.

Patmos is mainly composed of three sections joined together by two isthmus on the middle of the island, where there in antiquity (ruins) was the capital, despite its southern end.

The terrain is rocky and steep volcanic highest peak of the Prophet Elias (270 m.) Situated in the center of the island, south of the country (the same name) Patmos. There are two other hills in a northern part of the "slaves", and one in the "Leek south".

The country:Rock hermitage in Grikos beach

Generally the coastline is diverse with many capes as the Goat, the Crane and the Patch, to A. The Fyrro the Tsatsarla and Wisp (or Evdilos) to B. And Elia, the Kortessis and Genoupas to N . it also presents numerous coves and bays, such as stairs the port of the island a. Campos bay, Porto Griko, and D. White bay, Porto Merihas Olakas, Sykamias and Porto Cross ND. Major islets that surround Patmos are: Prasonisi Tragonisi, Chiliomodi, Ayia Thekla, Saint George, slave and Sklavopoula, islands Balamos etc. In Patmos falling and east of this island Arki, Lipsi and Agathonisi.

Frozen lava in Zouloufi.

The volcanic region "Zouloufi" is located on the NW side of Patmos. The tuff alternated with lava which flowed and froze from the sea, creating a highly striking landscape. Access is either by sea or by land walking around 1 hour and 30 minutes from the nearest settlement at Ag. Nikolaos of Campos.

Patmos with islands Astypalea and Leros under the province of Kalymnos, and the main settlement of this, the Country (Patmos) is the same municipality, built on the hill, which excels the Monastery of St. John the Theologian (Evangelist) as large castle .

Other smaller settlements of the island is Skala (port), the Plain (north) and Diakofti and the Cross (south).

History

Patmos (commonly patina), rarely mentioned by ancient authors Thucydides (3, 33), Strabo (10, 448), found in inscriptions as "Patnos". Her name some etymology (and Krippen) from Patna = Manger, others Mount Latmos of Asia Minor, where in ancient times especially worshiped Artemis and hunting hero Endymion, from where they probably originated the first locals carrying and the cult of Artemis.

Later Patmos refer to the projects' Stadiasmoi Great Sea "(280-284) and" Universe tour "of Efstathiou (530), and by the Latin writer Pliny (Natural History 4, 12, 23). Except that the ancient inhabitants of Patmos and Leros had common patron goddess Artemis was completely obscure until Roman times, where the island was a place of exile for political convicts. This character retained and early Christian times, where exiled disciple of Jesus John the Theologian, who wrote Revelation on Patmos and the namesakes of this "Gospel", the sacred books of the Christians in the New Testament.

About the Tenth century Patmos seems to have undergone much suffering from pirates, like all the islands of the Aegean and mentioned as inconspicuous and almost desert island. The 11th century finds Patmos to receive new life. After the fall of Constantinople (1453) fled to the island many refugees from the "City" and co-developed the whole settlement were later other refugees from Crete. He and settlement of Chora Patmos.

The inhabitants of Patmos because of the barren island and having no other means of support, were forced to engage in shipping and trade having the top small ships. For business purposes only always careful to maintain "good relations" with both the Ottomans and the Latins, buying the silence, safety and their freedom with taxes and gifts are often made to the Turks and the Venetians.

The 17th century Patmos coexistence of the monastery had become nautical and commercial center. During his 20-year pro Venetian-Turkish war of so-called Cretan (1645-1669), Patmos served as a naval port of Venice, where at the end of this war the true Crete came under the Venetians, while Patmos was occupied by the Turks. However residents continued to acquire more ships and the monastery by Patmiada School more glamor. Patmos, at the news of the travelers of that time, allegedly had never foreign residents except Greeks alone, as then until today.

In 1770, during the revolution of Orlov, Patmos was occupied by the Russian fleet and then been supplied census was numbered 510 houses and 2,086 inhabitants. By Küçük Kaynarca (1774), the Treaty of Patmos advantage of the presence of Russian consuls in the Aegean and using the Russian flag placed large ships engaged in maritime trade. Patmos, which was also the birthplace of one of the founders of the Friendly Society of Emmanuel Xanthos, with the explosion of the "revolution" in the Peloponnese became navy revolutionary center and many residents took part in the match of the national revolution.

After Constantinople Treaty (July 9, 1832) Patmos was received again in the Ottoman Empire, where he remained until 1912, when it was occupied by the Italians who remained until the collapse of Fascism on the summer of 1943, when they replaced their German formulations with the collapse of Nazism surrendered to the Allies. Finally, with the Treaty February 10, 1947 incorporated in Greece along with the other former Italian-occupied islands which formed the General Administration Dodecanese.

religious History

Nunnery of Zoodochos Pigi. In the background the highest peak of Patmos, Pr. Elias

Patmos in religious history is known since the first century of its presence there as an exile for two years of John the Evangelist, disciple of Jesus, who being found in the cave of St. Anne wrote the "Gospel" (probably) and "Apocalypse »as he testifies:" Egenomin on the island called Patmos for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus Christ. Egenomin in the Spirit in the Lord's day and heard behind me the voice of a trumpet, saying: write, what you see in a book and pepson tais seven the Churches "(Revelation a, 9). Skala (port) are preserved two chapels dedicated to a hand to John the Evangelist and the other disciples Polycarp and Prochorus.

After the death of John the Theologian in Ephesus, about the year 100, Patmos falls into obscurity for eight centuries, when the 904 after the capture of Thessaloniki by pirates of Tripoli Leo, prisoners Thessalonians anchored on the island. The Byzantine historian John Kameniatis, who wrote the chronicle of that tragedy, noted that: "Thus alleged katintisamen whom hath nison Patmos kaloumenin, where municipalities and prosemeinamen on the day, all Aleppo experience in this kathypomenontes, anhydrous gar being the place of their eliizeto thirst "prisoners.

The desert island began to be colonized in the early second millennium, when the monk Saint Christodoulos of Bithynia received from the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (1081 - 1118) permission to establish Patmos Monastery of Saint John on the hill higher than the cave of the Apocalypse just on the ancient altar of the goddess Artemis.

This periteichi Monastery was built in the form of a medieval castle with ramparts and walls epistirixis with ledger in this center, a small, but resplendent in art and other surrounding buildings and cells, as well as tanks. Around the monastery began to settle except monks and pilgrims with their families erecting houses and having as the asylum-like castle fortified monastery in case of danger pirate raid. So the monastery was connected with the history and development of the island.

Also with a golden bull of the Emperor Alexios he established itself in 1088 in the Monastery Patmiada School, which, according to the founding bull, bear the name "Tutorial students." However, startup is recorded in the year 1534, organized by the Metropolitan Neocaesarea Gregory and systematically from the 17th century, when it ensured the economic maintenance of the illustrious Greek Manolaki Kastorianos, resident in Istanbul and then in 1713 entered teaching in that as the headmaster Patmos descent Blessed Kalogeras.

In 1769 with the Patriarchal sigillium School reformed into "Joint School of the Nation", so he was the headmaster of this Patmos Daniel Kerameus. The School of Patmos, from which came most teachers of the Nation, scholars and famous bishops and patriarchs, he supported the late 19th century and up to 1912 in Athens Established Club of Anatolian Greeks "Anatoli", while already in the School operates Seminary with professors of the Greek state and scholars monks providing the full high school education and Ecclesiastical School recognized as a state institution.

Church affiliation

The island of Patmos in the vicinity of this islands is Patriarchal Exarchate.

The Patriarchal Exarchate of Patmos includes the islands of Patmos, which by Venerable Patriarchal and Synodical Act and the Law 1155/81 the Greek State declared "Holy Island" Lipsi, Agathonisi and Arki and is under the immediate church jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate .

The Ecumenical Patriarch carries the Exarchate of Patmos title:

"Master of the Monastery and Exarchate Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew."

In Exarchate of Patmos also includes eight parish churches, the Monastery pilgrimage "Virgin rescues" and three female monasteries (Zoodochos Pigi, beloved Mother and Holy Saints), 3 and 6 Hermitages Holy Seat.